Acquired Diseases of the Kidneys

  • Renal artery aneurysm – Renal artery aneurysm results from degeneration of the artery (arteriosclerosis) that weakens the wall resulting in formation of aneurysm. Most aneurysms cause no symptoms until they rupture, in which case there may be severe flank pain, back pain and shock from bleeding.
  • Renal infarcts – Renal infarction is caused by a blood clot or a thrombus in the renal artery causing lack of blood flow to the kidney. Most common causes are: endocarditis, atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation and trauma.
  • Renal vein thrombosis – Thrombosis of the renal vein is rare in adults. It is usually unilateral and is caused by the invasion of the vein by cancer.  In children, renal vein thrombosis may occur secondary to severe dehydration.
  • Arteriovenous fistula – This condition is rare and caused by needle biopsies of the kidney, trauma and in a rare case of renal cell carcinoma.

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